The Town of Franklin lies in the northern part of Delaware County, New York State. It is bordered by Otsego County on the north, the town of Davenport, and Meredith on the east, the towns of Delhi, Hamden, and Walton on the south, and the town of Sidney on the west. Ouleout Creek, which flows west into the Susquehanna River, is the main surface water feature. Its tributaries are Handsome Brook and Croton Creek. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 81.5 square miles and a 2010 population of 2,411. The town includes the hamlets of Bartlett Hollow, Brooklyn, Leonta, Merrickville, North Franklin, and Treadwell, as well as the village of Franklin.
It was named from Temple Franklin, a natural son of Dr. Benjamin Franklin. Its surface is a hilly upland, broken by deep, and narrow valleys. The principal streams are Ouleout creek, flowing west through the northern part of the town, and its two tributaries from the south, Croton creek and Handsome brook. The soil upon the hills is a shaly loam, underlaid by hardpan, and in the valleys a gravelly loam and alluvium. The word Ouleout or Olehoudt is of Indian origin, and is said to signify "rapid waters".