The town of Deposit is on the western border of the county. It contains a village also named Deposit, the western portion of which is located in the adjacent town of Sanford in Broome County. The village is located at the confluence of Oquaga Creek and the West Branch of the Delaware River. The Southern Tier Expressway (NY Route 17) follows the west town line. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 44.6 square miles and 2010 Census population of 1712 people.
The name "Deposit" was logical because in early times vast quantities of lumber were drawn on sleighs in winter from as far away as the Susquehanna and deposited on the river banks awaiting the spring high waters when the logs were fashioned into rafts, many as long as 200 feet in length, and floated to the Philadelphia market. This was in many cases the only cash income for these early settlers.
Before the arrival of white settlers, this part of the Delaware River Valley was inhabited by Indians of several different tribes. The Lenni-Lenapes or Delaware were most numerous, but the Mohawks held the upper hand. There were also some Oneidas and Tuscaroras. Their council ground was south of the present location of the Revolutionary War Cemetery. On the flats below the present railroad tracks they had cleared 30-40 acres of land where they raised corn and also a number of apple trees.